LEGISLATIVE REFORMS OF AUGUSTUS

Abstract: This work aims at describing, and commenting on, some of the main institutions of Roman law like the inheritance law of the state, tax law reform, the creation of the public police service, and the misappropriation or misuse of public treasury, among others. Being created ex novo or reformed by Augustus' Legislation, they are particularly interesting because, unlike other well-known Augustus' laws on matrimony, province and municipality, and citizenship and freedom, they have been hardly studied.

Keywords: Medicine. Inheritance. Lawyers. Treasury. Criminal offences

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SOME REMARKS ON THE LIFE OF THE EMPEROR AUGUSUTUS

Abstract:  The article traces the key moments in the life of the Emperor Augustus, who are in direct link with the measures it has legislative reforms in this times .

Keywords: History - Ancient Rome – Emperor August

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IUS PUBLICE RESPONDENDI EX AUCTORITATE PRINCIPIS

Abstract: The importance and the existence of  ius publice respondendi ex auctoritate principis is one of the mysteries that do not have answers in the history of the Roman law. August created (according to Pomponius in D.2.2.2.48–50) this right as a privilege  (beneficium), but its later development is far away from the initial intention of this emperor. The scientists admit its particular importance for the history of the Law at the beginning of the Principate, but also they do admit that there are a lot of controversial problems and doubts regarding its essential importance of the  ius respondendi in the  period of August,  Hadrian and Justinian. Even in the modern Roman literature exist a lot and different opinions on this question. The common opinion is that August gave this right as a privilege to famous jurists with an aristocratic origin, but not the right to create norms which are compulsory and which bound the judges when they have to take a decision resolving the legal disputes. This article presents ius publice respondendi ex auctoritate principis as a remedy for the realization of the policy of Augustus to attract more famous and glorious lawyers in the power and to assure their support for his reforms.

Keywords: emperor Augustus, Pomponius, responsa prudentium, ius publice respondendi, аuctoritas;

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BORDERS OF IMPERIAL ROME VERSUS BORDERS OF EUROPE TODAY

Abstract: From the ascension of Octavius Augustus, until the end of the Severus dynasty, Rome lived а period of peace and prosperity known as Pax Augusta.

Although the Latin term "limes" was used in ancient Rome, in Imperial Rome, it represented а visible boundary marking the territory of their outer reaches. The conception of border, acquired from Augustus, defines a new dimension to develop in the strategic area and geographically delimit all territories and people who are depended on Rome.

In the middle of the twentieth century, after the two World Wars, the idea of a united Europe emerged as a necessity for the search of world peace. At present, the European Union project is fully materialised and perfectly demarcated both geographically and strategically. The borders, both visible and not visible, and all the other aspects that define contemporary Europe coincide to a large extent with what Imperial Rome was.

 

Keywords: Pax Augusta, limes, border, Imperial, Europe

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AUGUSTUS` SENATORIAL COMMISSION OR ONE INSTRUMENT WHICH HAD A SUCCESS

Abstract: The article analyzes the way Emperor Augustus successfully created the first prototype of what would later be reformed into the so-called „Emperor's Council" or Consilium principis. By making the Senate elect a small legislative council with entirely advisory functions among its own members, Augustus practically created a new organ, which allowed him to get in advance any information he needed concerning the Senate's opinion about his own political and legislative ideas. By doing so, he was then able to act accordingly and successfully impose his policies. As a result, Augustus managed to gradually decrease the Senate's actual power, while transferring this power to himself and thus establishing the foundations of the future political system in Rome, which was centered primarily on the figure of the Princeps. 

Keywords: Augustus, reform, Consilium principis, Senate, Princeps, legislative, political;

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LEX AELIA SENTIA AND THE SANCTION OF NULLITY IN ROMAN LEGES PUBLICAE

Abstract: The article is devoted to the topic of the Roman prohibition laws in the field of private law (leges perfectae) are limited to banning a particular action or establishing a penalty for offenders. Lex Aelia Sentia is obviously the first law that provides in its text

nullity when doing acts are contrary to its prohibitions. It is assumed that the assessment of actions contrary to the law as devoid of legal effect and therefore the assessment of the law itself as lex perfecta is a result of the interpretation given by Roman jurisprudence.

Keywords: lex Aelia Sentia, lex perfecta, nullity, manuscript, invalidity of the release of slaves;

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FROM A PENINSULAR IBERIA TO ROMAN HISPANIA IN TIME OF AUGUSTUS

Abstract: The year of  2014 marked the 2000th anniversary of the death of Octavius Augustus. The belief that under his mandate Rome conquered Spain constitutes of an error- it is not possible to conquer something that does not yet exist. They fought a variety of indigenous people- the turdetani, the Ilergates, but they were not Spaniards who confronted the Roman legions. Only when, after the pacification of Augustus, all those people and cultures have merged, Rome and its provincial administration managed to bring a political unity reaching a concept that comes to surpass, what until then was not more than a mere topographic concept.

Keywords: Octavianus Augustus, Pax Augusta, romanization, Hispania, new political unit;

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SANCTIONS FOR NON PERFORMANCE AGAINST CONTRACTOR FOR PUBLIC WORKS IN LATE REPUBLIC AND EARLY PRINCIPATE

Abstract: In the article are analyzed different ways accepted in the Roman experience  (between the Late Republic and the Early Principate) of putting of imposing of sanctions for nonperformance of the contractor of the public services. When it is excluded the possibility of the exercising of the actio locati from the representative of  Populus, it is paid attention to the multae dictio like an afflictive solution less severe prescribed in the articles of the contract for the public services. It is reviewed the  venditio praedum-praediorum, confirming on the base of  leges Malacitana and Irnitana (chapters 64 e 65), that it in the case of nonperformance of the contractor of public work consists also in  relocatio operis. In the hypothesis of one nonperformance harming the rights of third persons beneficiaries of the public service, it is obvious the using of the procedure of the recuperatores which has an acute public character. In the evaluation of the synthesis it is criticized the opinion according to which the private persons are involved (for example with the cession of the credits) sanctioning the redemptores who do not perform their engagement.

Keywords: locationes publicae, multae dictio, recuperatores, venditio praedum praediorum, causa iuniana

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Something Old, Something New... Augustan Legislation and the Challenge of Social Control

Abstract: Augustus' interest in social control is easily demonstrated. His administrative reforms (for example, in the judiciary and in city planning) were thorough and, to judge from the fact that they were maintained and elaborated by his successors, effective. He used magisterial powers to revise the rolls of citizens, senators, and equestrians. Augustus hopes to accomplish through legislation the social control I define as status-maintenance.

My concern lies with the category of laws often described as social or moral legislation. These are typically thought to consist of the laws on electoral misbehavior, ostentatious consumption, marriage, adultery, and the manumission of slaves.

Keywords: Augustus, social control, social or moral legislation, status-maintenance

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AUGUSTUS FIRST EMPEROR OF ROMAN EMPIRE: FOUNDATION OF EMERITA AUGUSTA AND INSTAURATION OF IMPERIAL CULT IN ROMAN PROVINCE OF BETICA

Abstract: The life of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is a brilliant example of the life of a brilliant leader, who succeed to provide peace in difficult and troubled times in the Empire. The presence of high intelligence, combined with a sense of details and cultural sophistication, provide an opportunity to Augustus to manifest his large-scale thinking and to made Rome center of culture, literature, architecture and philosophy. This created conditions for the so-called "Golden age" of Rome during which time was established lasting peace. This was the time of crafts and arts. Many architectural monuments, buildings, entire cities have been created. One of these cities was Merida (Emerita Augusta). Emerita Augusta was built because of its strategic geographic location as a communication unit of the western border of the Empire. Thanks to Augustus, many theaters, forums, temples, thermal baths, water reservoirs, bridges, etc. were built in the city. That way the city became the center of Roman politics on the peninsula. Also with his great influence Octavian managed to create a cult of his personality. In the Baetica ( one of the provinces in the Empire ) the cult was focused on Augustus and his family. The imperial cult served as a basic principle of the legitimacy of the dynasties and a factor for the socio-cultural connection of the various peoples in the Empire. But when Emperor Septimius Severus came to power, the Baetica lost its political authority as a factor in the development of Roman politics. As a result of his acts the cult in the city was abandoned.

Keywords: Octavianus Augustus ; Baetica ; architecture ; Emerita Augusta ; imperial cult;   

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ADOPTION OF AUGUSTUS BY CAESAR - A POLITICAL ADOPTION BY WILL?

Abstract: Upon his return from Spain on September 13, 45 BC, Guy Julius Caesar made his will. In it he announces the adoption in familiam nomenque of Guy Octavian. Caesar died on March 15, 44 BC. At that date, Octavian does not yet know that he was named heir and was adopted by Caesar. When he was informed of Caesar's death, Octavian made a decision to accept the will and change the course of Roman history.

Keywords: Octavian Augustus, Julius Caesar, adoption, will;

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CONFIRMATION OF AUGUSTUS` POWER IN IMAGES. THEATER OF CARTHAGO NOVA

Abstract: The founder of the Principate is one of the most controversial figures of all times. Octavian came to power at a very young age and inaugurated a period of peace and prosperity. At the same time he knew how to finally bury the Republic and establish an autocratic system far beyond what Caesar could have imagined, without suffering the political response that cost his adoptive father his life.

Nowadays we are aware of the immense power of the image and the effects of visual advertising. This use of the images to establish symbols and sway the viewer in favour of certain positions is much older, and useful among a more illiterate population. In the same way, Emperor Augustus took advantage of the monuments and creations of his time to create the symbols that strengthened his power and brought society closer to his postulates.

Augustus undertook an extensive cultural program which he developed for more than 20 years. He pursued a moral renewal at all levels, achieving an effective change of mentality. Along with pietas, as a unifying element of the nation, Augustus' political action focused on displacing the appetite for luxury from the private sphere to public spaces.  Augustus had found a Rome of mud and transformed it into a marble city. The urban renewal focused on the city of Rome, but other cities of the Empire were also favoured by the renewal program of Augustus, such as the colony of Carthago Nova. The construction of the theatre in Carthago Nova, as an emblematic work of the whole process of renovation of the city, is framed in the symbology of the new order, transmitting to the contemporaries a clear message of consolidation of imperial power.

Keywords: Octavian Augustus, symbols, Carthago Nova, theatre;

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POLITICS OF AUGUSTUS IN A RELATION WITH GALLAECIA

Abstract: The figure of Augustus is intimately related to the history of Gallaecia, because it was one of the last territories subject to the rule of the Roman Empire. It is true that Gallaecia did not constitute an administrative division in itself at the time of the Emperor, apart from what the controversial Bierzo Edict might suggest, but this approach was adopted in other to give Gallaecia the place it deserves in Roman history.

There is not much information on the military activities carried out in Hispania, probably due to the strong interest in the clashes between the successors of Caesar at the time. The silence of the sources does not help to better understand the evolution of the provincial institutions located in Gallecia. Significantly more information is available from 26 A.D. when Augustus personally took the lead of the war in Hispania, now reduced to the territory of the Cantabrians, Astures, and Galicia, which shows the importance attributed by the new sovereign to the definitive conquest of the entire Hispanic territory.

Keywords: Octavian Augustus, Hispania, Gallaecia, province, Bierzo Edict, instituciones provinciales;

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SOCIETY, ART AND LAW IN THE PERIOD OF AUGUSTUS: WOMEN TROUGH THE VIEW OF ROMAN COMICS

Abstract: The article presented uses a rather innovative and out-of-the-box analyzing method. It is aimed at providing insight into the idea behind an exhibition, called Personajes femenino en el comic de romanos (Female characters in Roman-themed comic books), which took place in December 2014 in Almeria, Spain. The purpose of the exhibition was to outline the typical characteristics of the Augustus-era Roman female by analyzing the female characters in modern-day Roman-themed comic books, which are, despite their entertaining purpose, based on actual historical data.

 

Keywords: comic books, Augustus, female, exhibition;

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WOMEN IN THE EPOCHE OF AUGUSTUS. ONE MONOGRAPHY FOR TWO-THOWSAND YEARS JUBILEE

 Abstract: The article of prof. Gema Toribio tries to represent Roman women as they looked before 20 centuries. The women of Rome were sophisticated, most of them highly moral, having a several virtues, which can be an example for us today – honor, dignity, integrity, devotion etc. Some of them were characterized by stoicism and wisdom like Atia (mother of Octavian). Others by political flexibility like Servilia (mother of Brutus). Third were distinguished with their conservativeness like Scribonia Libo (wife of Augustus), who jealously defend the Roman traditions and rituals. Fourth, became popular with their cunning and cruelty – like Livia (wife of Augustus), or with obedience, intelligence and patriotism, as was Octavia (or also named Antonia-Junior – daughter of Marcus Antonius). Fifth, were characterized with progressiveness of their time and more intimate experiences like Claudia Pulchra Major (wife of Brutus). Others, like Agrippina Major and her daughters Julia and Agrippina Junior – with fatal croups to gain a political power. Helvia (mother of Lucius Annaeus Seneca) – with her pride, free spirit and devotion to her nation. The whole palette of female morality, which is presented in the article, cannot be covered at once, but one Is certain – the image of the woman in Ancient Rome awakens charm and is a cause for admiration until now.

Keywords: Roman women ; Augustus ; morality ; female character;

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CURA MINORUM AT PRINCIPATE

Abstract: In the first period of the development of Roman law, the role of tutors was very significant and the expression ius vitae ac necis could be used to describe it. With the passage of time, as the state organization was becoming more developed and the state control was becoming more prominent, tutors lost their right to manage assets of pupila, and they could only watch over it as a property manager. Thus, an important step in the development of the institution of guardianship (cura) was made, and, in this period, its sole purpose was to provide protection for persons who could not take care of themselves, because of their immaturity or certain disabilities, and who were deprived of parental care due to particular reasons. In the direction of further development of this institution, the classical period in the development of Roman law is especially important.  In this period, the scope of authority of tutors/guardians was expanded, and, at this point, they also became custodians of property and personality of pupila, and it was specifically requested from guardians to provide in advance all means which were necessary to preserve the assets of their pupila. This became especially prominent when the principle ius representationis was introduced, which shaped the role of tutors/guardians entirely, providing legal security within guardianship.

Keywords: cura minorum, the Pricipate, ius representationis, classical period

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Horace's verses about his attitude towards Emperor Augustus

Abstract : In Horace's poetry there are some verses about his relation to Augustus. Horace had the temerity to refuse Augustus' offer of a position as his personal secretary. Nevertheless, that does not seem to have cost the poet the emperor's favouritism. In this article are examined Horace's verses, which contain testimonies of his attitude towards Augustus' legislation about loose morals of the Romans.

Keywords: Emperor Augustus, Horace, poetry

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SPECTACLES AND POLICY. REFORMS OF AUGUSTUS IN 22 BC AND LIMITATIONS OF GLADIATOR`S GAMES

Abstract: The paper deals with the complex problem about the use of spectacles as a political instrument in the age of Augustus, focusing on only one specific episode – the reforms of the organization of gladiatorial games which took place in 22 BC. The study analyzes the content and the scope of these reforms, trying to situate them in their historical and political context and to offer a new interpretation which reunites the different elements in a coherent system and points out their political and propagandistic value.

Keywords: spectacles, politics, Augustan reforms, munera gladiatorum;

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Augusts marriage legislation

Abstract: The marriage legislation was part of Augustus` program to restore the res publica shaken by more than a century of political and social disorder. For Augustus and for men like Livy, Horace and Virgil the solution of the troubles which had befallen the Roman lay in the past, in the values and customs and of an earlier age (exempla maiorum) – family life, the chastity of Lucretia, the moral probity of Cato the Elder, in a word, Romanitas. The political settlement imposed by the principate was not enough without propagation of the Italian stock and of its prisca virtus, which, unadulterated by the attitudes and beliefs of the opulent and decadent east, had won Rome an empire. Ironically, the methods of Augustus of implementing this archaizing social policy, was itself a radical innovation – pervasive intervention by the state in the private lives of roman citizens passing three according to some of the contemporaries severe laws – Lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus, lex Papia Poppaea and Lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis, which response is obviously visible centuries after the death of their glorious creator – the reformator emperor Octavianus Augustus.

Keywords: Emperor Octavianus Augustus, marriage legislation, exempla maiorum, Romanitas, Lex Iulia dе maritandis ordinibus, Lex Papia Poppaea, Lex Iulia dе adulteriis coercendis

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THE CONCEPT OF CONTRACT ACCORDING TO MARCUS ANTISCIUS LABEO

Abstract: The article examines issues of Labeo's doctrine for the contract. The introduction is a brief discussion of the personality and life of the Roman jurist. Also the author has attempted to put those political and social events in Roman society, from this period, which he said contributed to the formation of Labeo's concept for which the author made a more general, but not define conclusion - for the formation of legal theory. Then the author has brought the legal, historical and philological arguments for one or another thesis to the problem as mentioned and discussed relevant sources. At the relevant parts of the text were made interim conclusions. Then at the end of each part the author makes general conclusion – rejecting or accepting certain arguments and conclusions about "actum", "gestum" and "contractum". In the article are also examined two important issues – the cause (causa) and unnamed contracts (contracta innominata) from the position of actio praescriptis verbis. At the very short end there is a brief conclusion in the spirit of the era with a quote from Cicero.

Keywords: Labeo, contract, Augustus emperor

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LEX IULIA DE SENATU HABENDO

Abstract: Lex Iulia de Senatu habendo (9 BC) is a comitial law, proposed by Octavianus Augustus, for which a reform of the Roman Senate and the senatorial procedure was carried out. The text of the law is not preserved and the information for the provisions that the law contains in various historical writings (by Dio Cassius, Aulus Gellius, Pliny the Younger). The law is not reproduced even one of the legal sources and it is not mentioned in the writings of classical jurists. This legislative reform corresponds to the policy of Augustus to maintain the authority and power of the Senate. The law makes changes in the procedure for Senate meetings (place and period of sessions), and in the procedure for the proposal and vote of Senatusconsulta, also the consequences of the violation of the rules for the sessions.

Keywords: Senatus, relatio, sententia, discessio, lex rogata;

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